Ray 1972

Old formulation by Ray (1972) for water and ice
Ray 1972
Analytic model for ice Ray 1972


Peter S. Ray


Ray, P. S. (1972). Broadband complex refractive indices of ice and water. Applied optics, 11(8), 1836-1844.


Range of temperatures

253 to 323 Kelvin

Range of wavelengths

2*10**-6 to 10**7 meters


Water, Ice

Extended description


This reference is considered to be outdated and more recent and accurate models are available. However we have included it for historical purposes.

With this model the Debye equations have been fitted to measurement points in the temperature-wavelength space in order to obtain a continuous formulation for the complex refractive index of ice and water over a large portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.