ARM (PennState)

A large database of single scattering properties at fixed orientations including polarization


Kultegin Aydin | Johannes Verlinde | Eugene Clothiaux | Yinghui Lu | Zhiyuan Jiang | Giovanni Botta


Lu, Y., Jiang, Z., Aydin, K., Verlinde, J., Clothiaux, E. E., and Botta, G.: A polarimetric scattering database for non-spherical ice particles at microwave wavelengths, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5119–5134,, 2016.

Particle types

pristine'and aggregates


0.1 to 62 millimeters


9.4 to 94 GHz




Scattering method


A database containing polarimetric single-scattering properties of various types of ice particles at millimeter to centimeter wavelengths is presented. While the database presented here contains only single-scattering properties of ice particles in a fixed orientation, ice-particle scattering properties are computed for many different directions of the radiation incident on them. These results are useful for understanding the dependence of ice-particle scattering properties on ice-particle orientation with respect to the incident radiation. For ice particles that are small compared to the wavelength, the number of incident directions of the radiation is sufficient to compute reasonable estimates of their (randomly) orientation-averaged scattering properties.

This database is complementary to earlier ones in that it contains complete (polarimetric) scattering property information for each ice particle – 44 plates, 30 columns, 405 branched planar crystals, 660 aggregates, and 640 conical graupel – and direction of incident radiation but is limited to four frequencies (X-, Ku-, Ka-, and W-bands), does not include temperature dependencies of the single-scattering properties, and does not include scattering properties averaged over randomly oriented ice particles

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