Tyynela series

Several studies on the microwave scattering and absorption properties of frozen hydrometeros


Tyynelä Jani et al.


Tyynela J., and von Lerber A. (2019). Validation of microphysical snow models using in-situ, multi-frequency and dual-polarization radar measurements in Finland, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 124(23), 13273-13290.

Tyynelä J. and V. Chandrasekar (2014). Characterizing falling snow using multi-frequency dual-polarization measurements. JGR 119, 8268-8283.

Tyynelä J., Leinonen J., Westbrook C. D., Moisseev D., and Nousiainen T. (2013). Applicability of the Rayleigh-Gans approximation for scattering by snowflakes at microwave frequencies in vertical incidence. JGR 118, 1826-1839.

Tyynelä J., Leinonen J., Moisseev D., and Nousiainen T. (2011). Radar backscattering from snowflakes: comparison of fractal, aggregate, and soft-spheroid models. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 28, 1365-1372

Tyynelä J., Nousiainen T., Göke S., and Muinonen K. (2009). Modeling C-band single scattering properties of hydrometeors using Discrete-Dipole Approximation and T-Matrix Method. JQSRT 110, 1654-1664

Particle types

pristine, aggregates of dendrites, fractal aggregates


100 microns to 24 millimeters


2.7 to 220 GHz


horizontal, random


Scattering method


This database includes results of scattering computations for dry and pristine single ice crystals, their aggregates, and graupel at microwave frequencies between 2.7 (S band) and 220 GHz (G band). The single ice crystals are preferentially oriented, while the aggregates and graupel are in random orientation. All particles have their orientation fixed for the scattering computations, which means that the scattering properties have not been averaged in any way and therefore include all phase-related features of the incident and scattered wave.

No image